Methods Of Home Canning And Preserving


Water bath canning

It entails food jars heating in hot water for a certain amount of time at a degree of (211°F at ground level).

For jellies, jams, pickles, tomatoes, and fruits, the procedure is safer. Goods with a PH value near 4.6 may need extra lemon juice or even citric acid when using a water bath technique to stabilize PH levels, but foods with a PH level greater than 4.5 could be safely processed using the pressurized canning technique.


You need a cooking pot for a water bath technique. This includes a fit lid on top of it and a wooden or wire shelf to protect your jars from contacting and splitting or shattering.

Pressure canning

Most vegetables (excluding tomatoes and cooked veggies), chicken, fish or local seafood, and dairy items are canned using this technique. In this process, food jars are immersed in 2 to 3 inches of hot water in the vapor pressure cooker constructed particularly for canning.

At 10 pounds of pressure, a temperature in a pressure cooking touches 240°F at ground level. To remove the possibility of bacteria development in your meal, a high temperature over the water boiling point (211°F) is necessary. The pressure-cooking technique is the only way to achieve the desired temperature.

Low acidic meals contain PH greater than 4.5. Based on altitude and food, the food pots should be cooked for a specific time period at the degree of 230°F or higher.


A specifically designed kettle with a hefty cover must be used for pressure canning. The lid must be steam-tight when closed. On the lid, balanced tire pressure and a security fuse aid in pressure building. A pressure cooker will also have a shelf for your pots and maybe not have a gasket.

Canning by using pressure cookers often includes a gauge that may be adjusted per lb of pressure. There’re two major kinds. The first one is the weight gauge that has 3 pressure levels of 6, 12, and 18 lbs. The dial indicator measures pressure from 0 to 15/25 pounds.

All pressure levels must be set on the base of the height of a place where your food is being canned.

Pickling and Fermenting

Pickling is indeed a culinary skill that people from all over the world practice. Here are some examples of pickled foods:  cucumber pickles, pickled herring, salsas, kimchi, chutneys, miso pickles, and more. These examples are from many nations, indicating that pickling is a worldwide tradition. The actual question is what you are doing to be capable of declaring you’ve pickled your meal.

To create pickles or pickle your food, you just dip it in a liquid that guarantees the item has a lengthy shelf life. Salting food is yet another approach to ensure that it lasts as long as possible without spoiling. Nomadic tribes in Africa and elsewhere used to salt their meat to keep it fresh for many days, if not weeks. In truth, individuals from many civilizations would salt and pickle their supplies of food for use during a winter season or during a famine, and they would do this for a long time.

Vinegar is often used for pickling because it is acidic enough just to kill microorganisms that would otherwise cause food poisoning. Other items are pickled with salt brine because it’s a liquid that aids in fermentation. Fermentation is promoted here because it promotes the growth of healthy bacteria, which makes the meal less sensitive to harmful germs. But, if the development of harmful bacteria is limited, your food will not spoil rapidly.


Dehydration, sometimes known as “drying,” is a time-honored technique of food preservation. Pathogenic bacteria may grow in an unfavorable environment for dried foods. This implies that rehydrating and eating dry food might result in food poisoning. Of course, you don’t want to get food illness just so you may save your meal for later. So, what will you do to avoid this while drying your food? When drying your goods, utilize high-quality materials that are free of pollutants. Also, verify that the processing facility is properly sanitized and that the dried food is stored in a way that avoids contact with dust, rats, insects, and other home insects.

When you choose to preserve your food to help it last longer, you have a number of alternatives. You might dry your food using air, inert gas, inert gas, steam, or direct heating. Air drying is often the most common and acceptable method of drying. This is acceptable for obvious reasons. This approach enables your items to dry gradually and is really handy. And, sure, there is plenty of air. Letting your items dry gently with air eliminates burning and browning, which are common with conventional drying processes.

Curing and smoking


It is among the earliest methods of food preservation. Salting and brining are both salt methods of curing food; salt was formerly so scarce that its availability might mean the difference between death and life.

The variation between salting and brining is that brining involves soaking meats in a salt solution that might or might not contain spices. When ‘salting’ cure meat, you massage the salt into it. Find out more about salt curing.


There are two types of smoking: hot smoking and cold smoking. Hot smoking is usually done at temperatures over 85 – 95 degrees, although it may be done at temperatures as high as 225 degrees. Cold smoking, clearly, involves the use of smoke at temperatures lower than that, often 70 degrees or below. Read up on smoking meat.

Safety rules to follow

Three jars of pickles, beets, and sauerkraut on wooden table

Before explaining about the safety rules first go through the NCHFP is publicly funded center for the research and education on home food preservation.

Their main mission is to:

Perform and organize studies to further knowledge in the subject; disseminate knowledge to end-users and educators.

The center assists in creating and distributing up-to-date, scientifically supported guidance on subjects including canning, drying, freezing, smoking and curing, and fermentation.

The NCHFP’s recommendations and guidelines are widely regarded as the industry’s best practices for home canning.

1. While preserving food at home, always use a canner.

Row of fermenting jars covered with brown paper on shelf

It’s simple and easy, right? Some individuals still believe it’s safe to can foods in the oven, utilizing the open kettle technique or the inversion method, where you place hot food in jars but let the lid seal right-side-up or upside-down (inversion).

You may get your containers to seal, but all of these approaches destroy the hazardous germs you’ve trapped within. Home canning requires a water bath or pressure canner.

If you’re water bath canning, you may use a big stockpot with a rack. Depending on what you’re canning, you must either boil, or pressure can hold your jars.

2. Low-acid foods must be pressure-canned

This is the most critical canning safety guideline.

Fruits, jellies, jams, pie filling, pickles, etc., may be water-bath canned, but low acid goods must be pressure canned. Low-acid foods include meat, fish, vegetables, stocks, etc.

Only a pressurized canner can achieve temperatures hot enough to kill botulism germs, which can develop a toxin underneath the correct circumstances if not destroyed or made dormant by high heat.

Botulism spores are ubiquitous (from fruits and vegetables to soil and water), yet most are dormant and harmless.

In the correct circumstances, these spores release a strong neurotoxic that may kill. Guess these conditions?

Botulism flourishes in a wet, low-acid, anaerobic, room-temperature environment, exactly like a home-canned food jar.

All low-acid foods must be pressure canned to destroy botulinum spores before they become lethal; therefore, this regulation is crucial.

3. Some foods should never be canned

Some foods should never be pressure-canned. Foods include:

Eggs, dairy (milk, butter, cheese, etc., and also pickled eggs)

  • Pumpkin purée is too thick for a vacuum canner to penetrate. Squash and Pumpkin have to be pressure-canned.
  • Flour, rice, pasta, cornstarch, etc.
  • Olive, avocado, coconut, etc. Oil-based products such as sun-dried tomatoes pesto in oil must never be canned.
  • Nutella (i.e., almond butter, sun butter, peanut butter, etc.)
  • Home-canned dairy is a no-no. If you read a recipe for home-canning milk or butter, RUN!

Freeze dairy. Some dairy may ferment and dehydrate. It’s impossible. Since milk and yogurt are low-acid and heavy in fat (which protects spores from heat), there’s no safe, verified technique for home canning.

Pumpkin purée must not be canned since it’s too thick for a pressure canning jar to destroy hazardous microorganisms.

Winter squash and pumpkin may be pressure canned, then drained and puréed. If you purée this ahead of schedule, freeze it.

Not canning flour, pasta, rice, cornstarch, and arrowroot powder. This guideline is more about quality than safety, yet it may make your meal inedible.

Starch and flour products grow mushy and unpleasant over time. You can pressure can chicken soup without noodles. When serving, cook the noodles fresh. Dried spaghetti noodles can be kept forever, so there’s no reason to can help them. Rice, Flour, cornstarch, and arrowroot powder are good thickeners for fresh cooking but not for canning. Example: home-canned pie fillings.

Adding a thickening to home-canned pie filling might result in a lumpy, messy mess.

Only Clear Jel is canning-approved for pie fillings. It’s a modified (non-GMO) cornstarch that can tolerate high canning temperatures and maintains pie filling rich and flavourful.

4. Canning using Mason jars

Many people assume it’s safe to can foods in outdated grocery store jars.

Reusing old supermarket jars and lids might lead to food spoiling.

Because they’re various sizes, they don’t usually fit Mason jar lids, the only home-canning lids.

You may reuse bands and mason jars, and thrift shops and garage sales sometimes have inexpensive ones. If they’re Mason jars and not too old, that’s acceptable.

Old Mason jars don’t fit today’s lids and are more prone to split and break. These old jars are better for collecting than canning.

Reusing jars is inexpensive (and eco-friendly!). You’ll get your funds back even if you buy them fresh.

5. While canning, always use fresh lids.

Mason jars, bands, and lids may be reused. Canning lids only seal once. Once they’re sealed, they won’t seal again.

Even if they seal properly, the seal may be too weak and allow food to deteriorate.

Reusing lids isn’t worth the cost of buying new ones every canning season.

Plus, you can repurpose old canning lids. I keep mine for storing dry goods in my pantry, making homemade materials like candles, body butters, bath salts, etc., or storing food in the fridge in mason jars. Tattler lids are reusable. They’re pricier up front but reusable.

6. Follow tried-and-safe recipes

The Internet has many risky canning recipes and tips. Generations-old canning recipes and procedures are also hazardous and outmoded. Some individuals say they’ve used these procedures and recipes previously and are still alive, but I don’t believe that’s the most encouraging evidence for a safe canning recipe.

Food standards and what keeps home-canned food healthy (or harmful) to consume have been the subject of much research. In our grandparents’ day, this study and knowledge didn’t exist. We’ve progressed since then, and our knowledge of microorganisms and food security has grown.

Not everybody has come up with the trends or believes in food safety science, and anybody can put anything online, so beware that canning milk recipe on Pinterest or your meemaw’s water bath preserving green beans recipe.

Always follow safe, proven, and up-to-date preserving recipes and techniques.

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